Slovenčina (Slovenská republika)English (United Kingdom)
Predstavenie spoločnosti DITHERM, a.s. a Termostav Bratislava, s.r.o.
DITHERM, a.s. and Termostav Bratislava, s.r.o. company presentation
HORVÁTH Z. - DITHERM, a.s. and Termostav Bratislava, s.r.o. 

Zaplaví čínské vody evropský kontinent? 
ill be European Continent flooded by Chinese Water?

FRANEK T. - Refrasil, s.r.o., Třinec - Konská, Czech Republic

Od roku 2000 pozorujeme prudký nárust výroby čínských žárovzdorných materiálú. Dnes Čína vyrábí přes polovinu celosvětové produkce žárovzdorných materiálú a stala se největším exportérem v tomto prúmyslném odvětví. Ohrozí tato situace další budoucnost žáromateriálú v Evropě?

Since 2000 we have observed rapid increasing of production of chinese refractory materials. Nowadays, China produces mare than half of world production of refractory materials and has become the biggest exporter in this industry. Will be the future of the refractory materials in Europe endangered by this situation?

Úspešné využitie kompaktných regeneratívnych horákov vo vysokoteplotných peciach
Successfully apply compact regenerative burners to high temperature furnaces

WHIPPLE D. - Bloom Engineering Company Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

This paper will discuss how compact regenerative burners operate and what benefits should be expected. Additional experience will be shared on assurig the benefits available are realized

Tabulárny oxid hlinitý pre tehly z korundu vysokej čistoty
Tabular Alumina for High Purity Corundum Brick

GIERISCH D. - Almatis GmbH, Ludwigshafen, Germany,
BÜCHEL G. - Almatis GmbH, Franfurkt, Germany,
LIU X. – Qingdao Almatis Co., Ltd., China,
BUHR A. - Almatis GmbH, Franfurkt, Germany

IThis paper discusses the differences between tabular alumina and white fused alumina especially with regard to the application in high purity corundum bricks. Five different compositions are used in this evaluation as per the ratio of tabular alumina vs. white fused alumina in the brick, which is 100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0%, respectively. The bricks were produced in an industrial scale pilot plant, and were tested for firing shrinkage, density, cold and hot strength, and thermal shock resistance. Also the resistance against coal gasifier slag and oil cracking slag were tested.

Nový typ cementu s vlastnosťami nezávislými na teplote pre žiarobetóny s nízkym a ultra nízkym 
obsahom cementu
A New Temperature Independent Cement for Low and Ultra Low Cement Castables

BÜCHEL G. - Almatis GmbH, Franfurkt, Germany,
GIERISCH D. - Almatis GmbH, Ludwigshafen, Germany,
BUHR A. - Almatis GmbH, Franfurkt, Germany,
KRAAIJENBOS F., WAMS G. – Almatis B.V., Botlek-Rotterdam, The Netherlands,
DUTTON J. – Almatis UK Ltd., Kingswinford, United Kingdom

Low and ultra low cement castables are widely used for in-situ installations and for the manufacturing of pre-cast shapes. High alumina calcium aluminate cements are a key component of these formulations, although they are only added in small amounts. The workability of the mixes with regard to water demand, pot life, setting time, strength development is strongly influenced by the cement used in the formulation. The chemical purity of the cement also has a major impact on the hot properties of the castable. For the formulation of low and ultra low cement castables, additive free 70% alumina cements with a very low amount of impurities are normally used.

MCC a HCC: Deflokulované kvalitné žiarobetóny s vysokým obsahom pojiva hlinitanu vápenatého
MCC and HCC: Deflocculated high performing castables rich in Calcium Aluminate binder

WÖHRMEYER Ch. - Kerneos GmbH, Oberhausen, Germany,
PARR Ch. - Kerneos SA, Paris, France

Low and ultra low cement castables are standard products for application in the iron and steel industry where these castables are often in contact with liquid iron, steel and slags at temperatures above 1500°C . Here, these lime reduced castables offer their optimum of performance. In many other application fields extreme high temperature resistance is not required. Other parameter like low water demand, low porosity and a micro pore structure are required to dispose for example highest abrasion and thermal shock resistance at medium temperatures, where NCC, ULCC and LCC can not reach the necessary phase transformation into mullite and gehlenite and where amorphous microsilica can form a liquid phase which is present after cooling at room temperatures as glassy matrix phase. This glassy phase generates high compressive strength at room temperature which is not automatically representative for their strength leve l at service temperature. From conventional castables it is known that their strength is quite low in the temperature range above the dehydration temperature of calcium aluminate hydrates and below the sintering temperature. Especially for this temperature range medium and high cement castables (MCC and HCC) are an interesting and robust alternative. The presentation will discuss their technological parameter like high hot strength and high abrasion resistance in comparison to cement reduced castables. The cement rich deflocculated systems enable high hot strength above the temperature where calcium aluminate phases de-hydrate without the need of strength formation by sintering reactions or mullitization.

Využitie termovíznych meraní v hutníckom priemysle
Utilization of thermovision measurements in metallurgy industry

MUSIAŁ D. - Częstochowa University of Technology, Poland

Thermovision employs detection, recording, conversion and visualization of infrared radiation emitted by diagnosed objects. This paper presents temperature measurements of metallic charge for plastic transformation and heat treatment. Furthermore, possibilities of detailed analysis of recorded thermographs within aid of camera assisted software have been also shown.

Ľahčené žiaruvzdorné materiály na báze kaolínu a oxidu hlinitého
Light weight refractory materials on kaoline and alumina basis

SVINKA R., SVINKA V., BUTLERS A. - Riga Technical university, Latvia

Light weight refractory materials from concentrated alumina and kaoline suspensions are obtained. Technology of these materials is similar to technology of aerated concrete. Two range pores in materials are formed: large pore by solidification of suspension after casting of slurry, but small pore by sintering of materials. Some additives such as titania or zirconia for the modification of properties are incorporated in suspension. Properties of obtained materials is in line with ASTM classification of light weight refractory materials in temperature range 1430 – 1650 0C . Thermal shock resistance of these mullite-corundum materials by additive of titania increases in comparison with materials produced by slurry casting of suspension without additive of titania.

Vývoj izolácií z produkcie Unifrax
Insulation Developments from Unifrax

DAVIES A. - Unifrax Ltd., Merseyside, England

Tento článok bude uvádzať prehľad najnovších výrobkov vyskoteplotnej izolácie a aplikácií v peciach pre trh výroby železa od firmy UNIFRAX.

This paper would be an overview of the latest high temperature insulation products and furnace related applications for the ferrous market from Unifrax

Vlastnosti zásypových pieskov posúvačových uzáverov liacich panví v závislosti na prevádzkových podmienkach
Properties of feeding sands for slide gate systems of steel ladles as depending on operating conditions

PRIESOL I., SLOSIAR Š., KYSEĽ F., PRIESOL V. –I.P.C. Refractories, spol. s r.o., Košice, Slovakia

V prednáške sa hodnotia jednotlivé podiely vlastností zásypových pieskov na úspešnosť bezproblémového otvárania výtokového uzla liacich panvi.

Bližšie sa hodnotia fyzikálne a chemické vlastnosti zásypových pieskov a ich percentuálny dopad na funkčnosť zmesi v porovnaní s dodržiavaním prevádzkovej disciplíny a čistoty technológie podávania pieskov do panvi.

Ekologický aspekt aplikácie pásmovania vzduchu a paliva v ohrievacích peciach podporené numerickými 
Ecological aspect of air and fuel staging application in heat furnaces with using of numerical methods

POSKART M., SZECOWKA L., RADOMIAK H. - Częstochowa University of Technology, Poland

Fuel combustion is the most important process in acquiring prime energy. It is also the main source of pollution emitted to the atmosphere. This is important to facilitate and optimize the combustion process according to ecological and power industry criteria. One of the methods of improving the combustion process is gradation and the way the air is supplied. The right way of the air supply enables to completely burn out the products of combustion generated in the reduction zone, and to limit the emission of nitric oxides. The fuel staging (reburning) nearby air staging is also low-edition and effective methods of reduction on NOX emission, which it have large possibility application. The reburning method will be using in many energetically installation both power engineering and industrial engineering and also in other industrial systems. For the sake of technical and economical conditions indispensable of experimental research component is numerical research. In this article showed the results of experimental and numerical analysis of air and fuel staging application in two heat furnaces : hardening and pusher in order estimated the NO emission. The numerical modeling of ecological effect realized with CHEMKIN software (version 4.1) using.

Stanovenie tepelnej vodivosti izolačných materiálov Al2O3 za podmienok vysokých teplôt
Determining the high temperature thermal conductivities of Al2O3-rich insulating materials

SIMMAT R., POETSCHKE J. - Forschungsgemeinschaft Feuerfest (FGF) e.V. , Bonn, Germany

The thermal diffusivities “a” of different high alumina thermal insulating materials were measured by the Method of Monotonic Heating (MMH) as continuous curve from 200°C to 1600°C . The corresponding thermal conductivities were calculated by lambda = a*cp*b, where cP is the specific heat and b is the bulk density. For comparison, the thermal conductivities are measured by the hot wire technique (EN993-15) and the calorimetric steady state technique (ASTM C201). The results obtained by the three methods show differences that are discussed under consideration of the anisotropic fabric of the samples and effects of heat radiation.

Stanovenie emisivity povrchu oceľových predvalkov
Determination of emissivity the steel bar surface

SZECÓWKA L., MUSIAŁ D. - Częstochowa University of Technology, Poland

The basic dimension which characterize the radiational heat is emissivity. It describe the relation of real radiational energy stream which is emit through consider substance to emitted energy by blackbody propertied the same temperature. The emissivity is defined two ways: on the experimental way and throughout selection of suitable dimensions from literature. In this article was used the direct method which depends on the measurement of radiant dimensions and the standard of research body as well as the determination of emissivity on the basic of measured values relation. The principal measurement was depend on the simultaneous registration of point temperature with used the pyrometer and thermocouple. The thermocouple was assembled in especially hole which was drilled under measuring surface.

The received values of emissivity make up the essential parameter use in processes of the modelling radiational heat exchange in the bundle of steel bars during heating.

Vplyv zmeny teploty objektov na hodnotu faktora emisivity
Influence of changes of objects temperature on the emissivity factor value

SZECÓWKA L., RADOMIAK H., NOWAK K. - Częstochowa University of Technology, Poland

Thermovision measurements are becoming more and more popular in the iron and steel industry, particularly where charge heating is taking place. Primary settings of the thermovision camera, as well as emissivity factor that depends on the objects\' temperature, are above all responsible for the quality of measurements. The main aim is to define changes of emissivity factor regarding temperature modifications while observing the measured quantity on the surface of heated object. The research has been conducted using thermocouple and thermovision camera.

Konštrukcia pecí pre spaľovanie biomasy
Construction of a biomass combusting furnace

KÖLSCH T. – Intocast GmbH, Bad Voeslau, Austria

Biomasa ako alternatívne palivo nachádza v poslednej dobe široké uplatnenie pre svoju dostupnosť, ekologický prínos ale aj ekonomiku. V príspevku sú prezentované typy pecí a výmuroviek.

Biomass as an alternative combustible can be widely applied in the last years thanks to its availability, ecological contribution as well as economics. The article introduces types of furnaces and linings.

Současný vývoj HPH - žíhacích poklopových pecí
Overview and recent development of HPH bell-type batch annealing furnaces

BURYAN M. - LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen, Germany

Zihaci poklopove pece stale neodmysle patri do technologickeho retezce tepelneho zpracovani v hutni vyrobe. Tento typ diskontinualniho zihani nachazi diky sve flexibilite siroke uplatneni nejen ve studenych valcovnach plechu, ale i pro tepelne zpracovani za tepla valcovanych svitku, ve valcovnach a tazirnach dratu, zihani pasu a dratu z nezeleznych kovu a v neposledni rade take pro vysokoteplotni zihani transformatoroveho plechu. Tento clanek ma nabidnout prehled ruznych konstrukci poklopovych peci, jejich aplikace a vyvojove tendence.

Bell-Type batch annealing furnaces are still integral part of heat treatment technology in the metallurgical manufacturing. Due to its flexibility, this kind of discontinuous annealing is used no only in cold rolling mills, but also for treatment of hot rolled coils, in rolling and drawing plants for wire, for annealing of products of non-ferrous materials and last but not least for high temperature annealing of electrical steel. This paper shall give an overview of various designs of bell-type annealing furnaces, their application and newest development trends.

Vývoj pracovních vyzdívek mezipánví v TŽ Třinec
Tundish Lining Developments in the Trinec Iron and Steel Works

POWETZ H., LACINA L., MOLIN A. - Refrasil, s.r.o., Třinec - Konská, Czech Republic

Tento článok poskytuje zhrnutie riešení výmuroviek liacich panví v oceliarňach celého sveta. Hlavným cieľom však je uviesť detailné výsledky prevádzkových skúšok vykonaných v Oceliarni Třinec, kde boli použité a skúšané rôzne koncepty výmuroviek. V článku sú popísané postupy inštalácie a opráv ako aj vlastnosti použitých žiaruvzdorných materiálov. Získané výsledky a praktické skúsenosti z Třinca sú hlavným aspketom tejto práce.

This paper gives a compillation on tundish lining designs used in steel plants worldwide. The main objective, however, is to detail results of field tests, run in the Třinec Steel Plant, where different lining concepts and teqnicques were introduced and tested. Both installation and repair procedures, properties of the refractories used, are described in the paper. Obtained results, and field experience in Trinec are the major result issue of this work.

Provozní zkouška celoizolované ocelářské licí pánve
Steel Plant Research of Ladle with Full-area Insulation

JANČAR D., TVARDEK P., HAŠEK P. - VŠB-TU Ostrava, Czech Republic

Současné technologie pánvové metalurgie a plynulého odlévání oceli kladou vysoké nároky na žárovzdorné vyzdívky licích pánví. Pro současné technologické podmínky ocelárny ArcelorMittal Ostrava, a. s. byla provedena provozní zkouška licí pánve s novým typem celoplošné izolace vyzdívky.

The present day technological systems of ladle metallurgy and of continuous casting of steel are imposing ever more stringent reguirements for the refractory lining of ladles. Plant measurements were done for the ladle with new type of full-area insulation of lining in present technological conditions of steelwork in ArcelorMittal Ostrava, a.s.

Úprava trosky v EOP
Slag adjusting in EAF

DLUGOSCH E., OLEJÁR I. – INTOCAST Slovakia a.s., Košice-Šaca, Slovakia

Úpravou zloženia trosky v EOP nosičmi reaktívneho MgO dochádza okrem metalurgických efektov aj k šetreniu výmurovky.

Adjusting slag by bearers of reactive MgO in the EAF causes besides metallurgical effect also savings on furnace lining.

Výskum procesu drobenia vo viacprúdovom drviči
The research of crumbling process in multi stream mill

WYLECIAŁ T., URBANIAK D., KANIOWSKI P. - Częstochowa University of Technology, Poland

It the article was conducted the analysis of work of multistream mill - the possibility of utilization to crumbling the calcium slide and the influence of chosen of parameter construction mill was examined on effect crumbling

Porézna žiaruvzdorná keramika na báze zirkónu, oxidu hlinitého a kaolínu
Zirconia, alumina and kaolin based porous refractory ceramics

BULA G., SVINKA R., SVINKA V. - Riga Technical university, Latvia

The preparation and properties of novel zirconia, alumina and kaolin based porous refractory ceramics are reported. Ceramics are obtained by slurry casting method with further sintering at temperature 16000C . Porous structure of ceramics as result of reaction between aluminium and water by solidification of suspension is developed. Influence of different type raw zirconia materials (primary yttria and magnesia stabilized zirconia and in situ yttria and ceria stabilized zirconia) is evaluated and compared. High temperature shock resistance by measuring elastic modulus and stress – strain values were evaluated. Measurements before and after 10 cycles of thermal shock examination were made. Macrostructure is analyzed by optical microscopy. Porosity of obtained ceramics is in the range from 39 to 60%. Microstructure of synthesized material by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and phase composition by X- ray analyses are determined. Presence of corundum, mullite, zircon, baddeleyite and tetragonal modification of zirconia is observed.

Vysokoteplotní kompozitní materiál na bázi kalciumsilikátu a kalciumaluminátu DURATEC- XPŇ pro použití v
indukčních pecích
High temperature composite based on calcium aluminate silicate (DURATEC- XPŇ) used in induction industry

PŘIBYL M. - Promat s.r.o., Praha, Czech Republic,
KRASSELT V. - Promat GmbH, Rattingen, Germany,
WU X., ANTON O. - Promat International, Tisselt, Belgium

A high temperature composite was developed with a microstructure that was designed to optimize properties required for use in applications, where combined effects of thermal, electrical and mechanical performances are needed. More specific, the material possess high mechanical strength of above 30 MPa, fracture toughness values in the order of 3,600 J/m2 or above, excellent thermal shock behaviour and resistance against molten metals. The material is electrically inert and its high fracture toughness allows good machinability.

Typical applications include induction furnace casting (top plate, boxing, end board, muffle, etc.). Even, induction furnaces are mainly used in ferrous metals production (Ni-Cr alloys, superalloys, non- ferrous alloys (copper alloys) are widely being melted and processed by induction technology, as well.

Projekt InnoGlas - inovačné tepelné technológie pre zníženie spotreby energie a zlepšenie kvality v sklárskom
Project InnoGlas - innovative heating technologies for minimized energy consumption and quality improvement
in glass industry

REUSSE E., TRIMIS D. - TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany

Focal point of the project InnoGlas - working cut the process improvement and the effective application of the porous media combustion (gas porous burner) in the glass industry.

Kontinuálne vylepšovanie supervlny 607HT
Superwool 607HT continuous improvement

OLLAGNIER C., CLASS P. – Thermal Ceramics de France SA, France,
MAZURKIEWICZ P. - Thermal Ceramics Polska Sp. z o.o. , Poland

Health & safety European regulations for fiber products; superwool product range; superwool 607 HT fiber characteristic and performance; replacing RCF with Superwool 607HT benefits

Prefabrikátová bezpečnostná výmurovka v hlavnom žľabe vysokej pece
Precast Safety Lining in Blast Furnace Main Trough

GONDOLF M., Calderys France SAS, France,
AVIS R. N., PALMISANO P. – Calderys Refractory Solutions GmbH, Austria

Studie mechanických vlastností žárobetonů pro keramické kotevní prvky
Investigation of mechanical properties of castable with respect to their application as ceramic anchor elements

NEVŘIVOVÁ L. - Vysoké učení technické v Brně, Brno, Czech Republic
HENEK M. - Průmyslová keramika, spol. s r.o., Rájec-Jestřebí, Czech Republic

Jako keramické kotevní prvky se běžně používají pálená žárovzdorná staviva, především obyčejný a vysocehlinitý šamot. Jednou z nejdůležitějších vlastností materiálů kotev, která ovlivňuje jejich spolehlivost je dostatečná pevnost v ohybu, nebo v torzi a to jak za studena tak za zvýšených teplot. Úkolem studie bylo posoudit různé druhy šamotových žárobetonů a porovnat je s vysoce jakostním, hutným šamotem (tradičním materiálem kotevních prvků). U žárobetonů byl popsán vliv teploty výpalu na výsledné fyzikálně mechanické vlastnosti materiálu.

Burnt refractory building materials are commonly used as ceramic anchor elements, particularly ordinary and high-aluminous fireclay. One of the most important material properties affecting their reliability are sufficient bending strength and shear strength both in normal and increased temperatures. The study compares properties of high quality compact fireclay with fireclay castable of ULCC, LCC, MCC, and RCC type. Influence of burning temperature has been watched for castable on resulting physical mechanical properties of the material.

Alumosilikátové materiály používané v českém a slovenském cementářství– situace, trendy a řešení
Aluminosilicate materials used in Czech and Slovak cement industry – current situation, trends and solutions

LANG K., KOVÁŘ P., STROUHAL T. - P-D Refractories CZ a.s.,
Velké Opatovice, Czech Republic

Práce popisuje žáromateriály aplikované v českých a slovenských cementárnách, některé jejich vlastnosti a charakteristiky, včetně různých přístupů k řešení této problematiky. Vedle znalostí žáromateriálů je větší pozornost věnována technologii výroby slínku. V minulosti preferované žárové a fyzikální zkoušky jsou doplňovány zkouškami mikrostrukturálními a různými korozními zkouškami. Soubor všech poznatků (laboratorních testů a provozních zkušeností) potom umožňuje podstatně lépe navrhnout optimální skladbu vyzdívkového matriálu.

The work describes refractories applied in Czech and Slovak cement plants, some of their properties and characteristics including several approaches to these problems solving. Besides the knowledge of refractories, greater attention is paid to the production technology of clinker. The in the past preferred tests of refractory properties and physical tests are completed with the microstructure and various corrosion tests. The set of all the information (laboratory tests and experiences from the operation) helps substantially to propose an optimal composition of the brickwork material.

Provozní zkouška vysocejakostních staviv v tandemové peci
Operational test of high-grade building material in tandem furnace

OVČAČÍK F., et al. - VŠB-TU Ostrava, Czech Republic

V důsledku zavádění nových technologických procesů a s používáním nových druhů žárovzdorných materiálů vyšších jakostí dochází k poklesu jejich specifické spotřeby a současně dochází k podstatným změnám v sortimentu výrobků. Mezi ocelářská zařízení s nejvyšší spotřebou žárovzdorného materiálu bezesporu patří tandemové pece. I přesto jsou tandemové pece považovány za ekonomicky únosné zařízení, což je důsledkem využití tandemového principu výroby oceli a možnosti zpracování vysokého podílu ocelového odpadu. Cílem provozní zkoušky bylo podrobně sledovat úbytek žárovzdorného materiálu během standardní kampaně na ocelárně ArcelorMittal Ostrava a.s..

In consequence of new technological processes and using of new kinds of higher quality refractories get to their specific consumption decrease along with the significant changes in line of products. Tandem furnaces belong without question to the steel appliance with the highest refractory material consumption. In spite of this are tandem furnaces considered to be economically acceptable devices what is effect of application of steel manufacture tandem principle and possibility to process high part of steel scrap. The goal of the operational test was to monitor the refractory material loss in detail during the standard campaign at the steelworks ArcelorMittal Ostrava a.s..

Výrobkové inovácie a nový dizajn vo vybraných hutníckych agregátoch z dielne spol. REFRAKO s.r.o.
Development of new products and new design linings in particular metallurgical aggregates from
the production of Refrako s.r.o.

PARNAHAJ J., POPOVIČ P., ŠIMKO S. - Refrako s.r.o., Košice, Slovakia

Prednáška sa venuje výrobkovej ionovácií v spol. Refrako s r.o., orientovaná do oblasti ľahčených tvarových materiálov s OH 500 – 1100 kg .m- 3 a BSC materiálov pre nalievacie pánve železa. V druhej časti prezentuje súčasné trendy v dizajne a aplikáciách výmuroviek vo vybraných hutníckych agregátoch z výrobkovej základne spol. REFRAKO s.r.o.

The paper brings your attention to development of new productions in Refrako s.r.o. in the field of lightweight bricks with BD 500 - 1100 kg .m-3 and BSC bricks for HML. The next part deals with new design linings in particular metallurgical aggregates from the production of Refrako s.r.o.

Eliminácia nepriaznivých vplyvov konštrukcie tunelovej pece č. 3. v SLOVMAG, a. s. Lubeník na 
fyzikálno-mechanické vlastnosti pálených materiálov spôsobom ukladania skládky na pecné vozy.
Elimination of adverse effects of the tunnel kiln No. 3. construction in SLOVMAG, a. s. Lubeník on
physiomechanical properties of burned materials by adjusting the placement of tockpiles on kiln carts

ŠVIDRAŇ I. – Slovmag, a.s. Lubeník, Slovakia

Popis súčasného technického a technologického stavu tunelovej pece. - Špecifikácia vlastností ŽM ovplyvnených páliacim režimom v tunelovej peci. - Riešenie spôsobu ukladania tvarových elementov na pecné vozy.

Description of the present technical and technological condition of the tunnel kiln. · Specification of the properties of refractories induced by the burning regime in the tunnel kiln. · Advisable ways of placement of shaped elements on the kiln carts.

Žárobetony na bázi SiC s vazbou sol-gel, jejich odolnosť proti korozi struskou z komunálního odpadu
Castables on the base of SiC with the sol-gel bond, their corrosion resistance against the municipal waste

PEŠEK J. - Žárohmoty, spol. s r.o., Třemošná, Czech Republic

Fyzikálne vlastnosti žiarobetónov obsahujúcich 30 - 70% SiC s extrémne nízkou pórovitosťou. Ich správanie sa v žiari, hodnotenie HMOR pri 1400 oC, deformácie v žiari pri zaťažení, dilatácia, DTA, GTA, korózia struskou zo spaľovne odpadov, odolnosť voči náhlym teplotným zmenám. Porovnanie s ekvivalentnými žiarobetónmi typu LCC, ULCC. Prednosti a nevýhody na báze pojiva sol-gel.

Fhysical properties of castables on the base of 30-70% SiC with extremely low porosity were evaluated. Their behaviour in high temperature, HMOR at 1400 oC, corrosion by slag from the municipal waste, resistance against rapid temperature changes. Comparison with castables with hydraulic binder, type LCC and ULCC. Advantages and disadvantages of castables on the base of sol-gel bond.

Fosfátová väzba a jej vplyv na sušiaci proces vysokohlinitého žiarobetónu
Phosphate bound and its influence on the drying process of high aluminous castables

FRÖHLICH L., MARTONČÍKOVÁ J., FRÖHLICHOVÁ M. – Faculty of Metallurgy of the Technical University, Košice, Slovakia

V práci sú uvedené výsledky experimentálneho štúdia interakcie fosforečných aditív s vysokohlinitým žiarobetónom a ich vplyv na proces sušenia. Diskutované sú kinetické pomery sušenia a fázové zmeny a štruktúra modelových teliesok sušených v intervale 20 až 800°C .

Vplyv alternatívnych palív na koróziu žiaruvzdorných vymuroviek
The alternative fuels and their influence on the corrosion of refractories

VADÁSZ P., RABATIN Ľ., IMRIŠ I., KAMOĎA O. - Faculty of Metallurgy of the Technical University, Košice, Slovakia

Používanie alternatívnych palív v tepelných agregátoch sa výraznou mierou zaslúžilo o zmenu zloženia spalín. Dochádza k kvalitatívnej aj kvantitatívnej zmene spalín, pričom klasické zložky spalín CO2, CO, H2O, NOx a SO2 sú doplnené relevantnými podielmi Cl2, resp. HCl. Táto zmena sa prejavila aj na korózii vymuroviek, kde sa výraznejšou mierou začínajú presadzovať chloridy vznikajúce pri reakciách so vsádzkou ako aj výmurovkou.

Using the alternative fuels has strongly influenced the composition of exhaust gas in furnace aggregates. It leads to structural change of exhaust gas and components such as Cl2, resp. HCl and others are added into standard components like CO2, CO, H2O, NOx and SO2.

SMZ a.s. Jelšava – svetový výrobca žiaromateriálov – história, súčasnosť, perspektívy
SMZ a.s. Jelšava - Worldwide producer of refractories - history, present and perspectives

SEGEĎA I., BUCHTA J. - SMZ a.s. Jelšava, Slovakia

Takmer počas celej histórie jelšavského závodu tvorila výroba tehliarenských a oceliarenských slinkov hlavný výrobný program. Zmeny v technológii výroby ocele donútili aj našu a.s. prispôsobiť sa svetovému trendu.

V roku 1993 začala SMZ Jelšava produkciu novej generácie netvarovaných žiaruvzdorných materiálov s ročnou produkciou 1600 ton . Ročná produkcia v 2007 bola 83 000 ton, s perspektívou rastu. Vývoj nových produktov neustále pokračuje, snahou SMZ Jelšava je pokryť svojou produkciou v čo najširšej miere potreby sekundárnej metalurgie.

Almost all the history round of Jelsava`s work, formed mainly production shedule steelmaking and brickmaking sinter. Change in technology of steel production occasioned our company to adapt production shedule to world -wide trends.

In 1993 SMZ a.s Jelsava began production of new generation of unshaped refractory materials with annual production 1 600 ton. Annual production in 2007 was 83 000 ton with perspective of growth. Development of new products is continual process, SMZ Jelsava`s aspiration is to cover with its production all needs of secondary metallurgy.

Spojivá pre MgO-C žiaruvzdorné materiály
Binders for MgO-C refractories

SMEKAL N. - U. S. Steel Košice, s.r.o. , Slovakia
KUFFA S. – CeramKo Košice, s.r.o. Slovakia
SÚČIK G., KUFFA T. - Faculty of Metallurgy of the Technical University, Košice, Slovakia

Príspevok pojednáva o vývoji spojív pre prípravu MgO–C žiaruvzdorných materiálov. Cieľom experimentov bola príprava MgO–C vzoriek s použitím čiernouhoľných smolných spojív s nízkym obsahom benzo(a)pyrenu. Vo vzorkách po tepelnej úprave boli robené testy s cielom zistenia zbytkového uhlíka, objemovej hustoty, otvorenej porozity, pevnosti v priečnom ťahu a pevnosť v ohybe za studena, po skúškach odolnosti voči tepelným šokom.

Kľúčové slová: smolné spojivá, periklas, uhlík, termomechanické vlastnosti.

The paper deals about recently development of binders for preparing MgO–C refractories. The aim of experiments was preparation of MgO–C samples with coal tar pitch binder with low content of benzo(a)pyrene. The final samples properties after the heat treatment was studding. The residual carbon content, bulk density, open porosity, cross tensile strength, cold crushing strength after the thermal shock resistance of samples was the main criteria.

Key words: pitch binders, periclas, carbon, thermomechanical properties

Izolácia chladiaceho systému narážacích pecí
Insulation of Water Cooling System of Push Furnaces

VARGA A., TATIČ M. - Faculty of Metallurgy of the Technical University, Košice, Slovakia

Jednou z hlavných príčin strát tepla pri ohreve kovu pred valcovaním za tepla predstavuje jeho spotreba na ohrev chladiacej vody v nosnom systéme ohrievacích pecí s obojstranným ohrevom. Tieto straty narastajú v čoraz viac sa uplatňujúcich krokových peciach, ktorých povrch vodou chladeného nosného systému je cca dvakrát väčší ako u narážacích pecí. V súčasnej dobe existuje celý rad rôznych typov sklzníc od jednotlivých po zložité. V ohrievacích peciach valcovní veľkosť strát tepla chladiacou vodou pri neizolovaných sklzniciach sa pohybuje rádovo okolo 10 - 30%, v závislosti od typu pecí (narážacích alebo krokových), režimov ich práce a taktiež konštrukciou vlastných pozdĺžnych sklzníc. Izolácia sklzníc značne znižuje tepelné straty chladiacou vodou.

The heat consumption for the cooling water warming up in the supporting system of the push furnaces with both side heating is one of the main causes the heat loss in metal heating prior the hot rolling. Such loss is even increased in case still more exploited walking beam furnaces, surface of water cooled supporting system is twice larger in comparison with the push furnace. At the present time there is entire scale of skids ranging from simples ones to the complex ones. The heat loss value in the case of the heating furnaces of the hot rolling mill rangers from 10 to 30% as depending on the furnace type (push or walking beam), next on the heat exchange pattern and the longitudinal skids construction alone. The proper skids insulation reduces up to great degree the thermal loss by cooling water.

Možnosti tavenia tenkostenných hliníkových odpadov v taviacej peci
The possibilities of melting of thin Aluminium scrap in the melting furnace

LUKÁČ L., JACKOVÁ Z., DŽUGANOVÁ D. - TAVAL s.r.o., Prešov-Ľubotice, Slovakia

The paper deals with the possibility of melting of thin Aluminium scrap in the melting furnace. The scraps get shredded, decoated in heat installation and then melted in stationary furnace heated by naural gas.


Korózia AZS žiaruvzdorných materiálov simaxovou sklovinou
Corrosion of refractories by molten simax glass

STANO F. - MOTIM, representative for SR a CR, Trnava, Slovakia

Projekt InnoGlas - inovačné tepelné technológie pre zníženie spotreby energie a zlepšenie kvality v sklárskom
Project InnoGlas - innovative heating technologies for minimized energy consumption and quality improvement
in glass industry

HARDTMANN A., REUSSE E. - TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany

Studium vlastností ocelářské strusky a její využití
Study of steelmaking slag properties and slag application

KLÁROVÁ M., OVČAČÍK F., HAŠEK P. - VŠB-TU Ostrava, Czech Republic

Vedle celosvětové snahy o snižování emisí a odpadů je důležité zabývat se také možností využití vedlejších produktů, které vznikají v našem případě při výrobě oceli. jedním z takových produktů oceláren je v hojném množství ocelářská struska, která vzniká během každé tavby a obvykle nevyužitá končí na haldách nebo je ve velmi omezené míře využita ve stavebnictví. Vhodným zpracováním by se dalo docílit téměř bezodpadové výroby a dosažení dalších úspor. Příspěvek nastíní možnosti, jak sledovat vlastnosti ocelářských strusek a docílit jejich opětného využití jako druhotné suroviny přímo tam, kde vznikly.

In addition to worldwide effort about reduction of emissions and wastes it is important to deal with possibility of by-product utilization, which is created in steelmaking process in our case. One of the most abundant by product is steel slag which is created during each melt and then it is stored on escorial. Rarely, it is used in building industry. By suitable treatment of steel slag, wasteless production and another savings can be achieved. The report describes a few opportunities of how we can study steel slags characteristics and utilise this slags as a secondary material directly in the plant where it is created.